Posts Tagged Hippolytus

Messiah, Our Passover

Scenes of the Passion of Christ (Image via Wikipedia)

As יהוה was delivering Israel from Egypt, he commanded his people spread lamb’s blood on their doorposts and lintels (Exod 12:7). In view of this blood, יהוה passed over his people and judged only the Egyptians’ firstborn and their gods (Exod 12:12–13), for יהוה had provided that the Israelites should redeem their firstborn with lamb’s blood (Exod 13:15; cf. Exod 34:18–20). He delivered them mightily, he brought them through the sea, he made a covenant with them, and he settled them in Canaan (Exod 12:29Judges 1:26). Nevertheless, even those who entered the land did not fully enter יהוה’s rest (Heb 4:8–11), and year by year, they offered sacrifices for sins (Lev 16:1–34; 23:26–32; Num 29:7–11; Heb 9:6–10; 10:1–4).

Correspondingly, Jesus was a faithful son in all things ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ (Heb 5:7; in the days of his flesh; cf. Heb 3:6).1 Yet, especially in his death, ἔπρεπεν . . . αὐτῷ, διʼ ὃν τὰ πάντα καὶ διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα, πολλοὺς υἱοὺς εἰς δόξαν ἀγαγόντα τὸν ἀρχηγὸν τῆς σωτηρίας αὐτῶν διὰ παθημάτων τελειῶσαι (Heb 2:10; it was fitting for him, because of whom are all things and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to perfect through afflictions the originator of their salvation; cf. John 19:30; 1 Cor 5:7).2 Having thus died and risen again, therefore, this Jesus has secured an eternal redemption and brings those who side with his faithfulness οὐ . . . ψηλαφωμένῳ (not to what may be touched) with dire consequences (Exod 19; Heb 12:18–21) but to a resplendent πόλις . . . ἡ μέλλουσα (Heb 13:14; city that is to come; cf. Rom 3:21–26; Eph 2:19–22; Phil 3:20–21; Heb 6:11–12; 9:11–12; 10:19–31; 12:18–29).3


1. Cf. Augustine, Faust., 19.10 (NPNF1, 4:243).

2. Athanasius, Ep., 2.7, 6.2, 7.3, 10.10, 19.1 (NPNF2, 4:512, 520, 524, 531, 544–45); Augustine, Faust., 19.10 (NPNF1, 4:243); Augustine, Tract. Ev. Jo., 55.2, 117.2, 121.3 (NPNF1, 7:299–300, 428, 436); Hippolytus, Fragments, 5 (ANF, 5:238); Tertullian, Adv. Jud., 10 (ANF, 3:167); (Pseudo-)Tertullian, Marc., 2.83–112 (ANF, 4:147); cf. Chrysostom, Hom. 1 Cor., 15.6–7 (NPNF1, 12:85–86); Origen, Comm. John, 10.11, 10.13 (ANF, 9:388–90).

3. Athanasius, Ep., 6.2, 13.7, 43 (NPNF2, 12:520, 541, 552–53); Augustine, Doctr. chr., 2.41 (NPNF1, 2:555); Augustine, Enarrat. Ps., 40.13 (NPNF1, 8:124); Augustine, Ep., 55.3.5 (NPNF1, 1:304–5); Augustine, Faust., 19.10 (NPNF1, 4:243); Chrysostom, Hom. Eph., 23 (NPNF1, 13:165–66); Hippolytus, Haer., 8.11 (ANF, 5:123); Peter of Alexandria, Fragments, 5.7 (ANF, 6:282); cf. Clement of Alexandria, Strom., 4.10 (ANF, 2:460); Leo the Great, Serm., 59.5 (NPNF2, 12:1:172); Origen, Comm. John, 10.11 (ANF, 9:388); Tertullian, Marc., 5.7 (ANF, 3:443).

Cross-posted from New Testament Interpretation.

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Worthy of More Glory

Moses, confronted about his Cushite wife

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In Num 12:1, Miriam and Aaron confront Moses because of his marriage to a Cushite woman, and in so doing, they attempt to claim equal prophetic status with Moses (Num 12:2a). Apparently, on this occasion, Moses’ meekness constrains him from responding (Num 12:3; cf. Rom 12:191 Clem. 17 [ANF 9:234]; Socrates, Hist. eccl., 7.42 [NPNF2 2:176]), but יהוה hears the conversation and summons all three siblings to the tent of meeting (Num 12:2b, 4). יהוה then summons Aaron and Miriam for a special rebuke (Num 12:5): however high may be their claim to apparently equal prophetic status with Moses, Moses own status still surpasses that of prophet (Num 12:6–9). The status that Aaron and Miriam claim for themselves gets them only so far—only to dreams and visions (Num 12:6). By contrast, Moses is not limited to dreams and visions, but פה אל־פה אדבר־בו ומראה ולא בחידת ותמנת יהוה יביט (Num 12:8a; with him, I [יהוה] speak mouth to mouth, plainly, and not in riddles, and he looks upon the form of יהוה). More than a prophet, Moses is a faithful servant in all יהוה’s house (Num 12:7; Heb 3:5).

So much the greater, then, is he with whom Moses the faithful servant and Elijah the prophet appear on the mountain (Matt 17:3; Mark 9:4; Luke 9:30–31; cf. Irenaeus, Haer., 4.20.9–11 [ANF 1:490–91]). Yet, far from contending with this Jesus for their own status, Moses and Elijah discuss with him ἡ ἔξοδος αὐτοῦ, ἣν ἤμελλεν πληροῦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ (Luke 9:31; his departure, which he was about to complete at Jerusalem; cf. Leo the Great, Serm., 51.4 [NPNF2 12:163]; Origen, Comm. Matt., 12.38 [ANF 9:470]). Not being sufficiently sensible of the situation, however, the newly awakened Peter does suggest a certain equality of status among the three glorious individuals he sees before him (Matt 17:2–4; Mark 9:2b–6; Luke 9:29–33; Leo the Great, Serm., 51.5 [NPNF2 12:163–64]). The divine response again comes in a cloud (Num 12:5; Matt 17:5a; Mark 9:7a; Luke 9:34). Nevertheless, the heavenly voice does not answer by assigning Jesus to the category of “servant,” however noble or faithful, but acknowledges him as the so much superior son (Matt 17:5b; Mark 9:7b; Luke 9:31–32, 35; cf. Hippolytus, Noet., 18 [ANF 5:230]; Jerome, Epist., 46.13 [NPNF2 6:65]; Leo the Great, Serm., 51.6 [NPNF2 12:164]; Rufinus, Symb., 4 [NPNF2 3:544]; Tertullian, Praescr., 22 [ANF 3:253]), who is himself deserving of all allegiance and honor (Matt 17:5–8; Mark 9:7–8; Luke 9:35–36; Heb 3:1–19; Augustine, Serm., 28.3–5 [NPNF1 6:347–48]; Clement of Alexandria, Paed., 1.11 [ANF 2:234]; Cyprian, Epist., 52.14 [ANF 5:362]; Leo the Great, Serm., 51.7 [NPNF2 12:164]; cf. Ambrose, Epist., 43.57 [NPNF2 10:464]; Chrysostom, Hom. Heb., 5.4 [NPNF1 14:390]; Cyril of Jerusalem, Lectures, 10.7–9 [NPNF2 7:59–60]; Hilary of Poitiers, Trin., 6.24 [NPNF2 9:106]).

Cross-posted from New Testament Interpretation.

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